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Resources: IEP, Apraxia, Articulation, RAD, ADHD/ADD, ASD, Bipolar, CAPD/APD, Cerebral Palsy, DS, Dyslexia, LD, MR, NLD/NVLD, OCD, Phonology


Individualized Education Program: IEP
As mandated by the U.S. Department of Education, all students are guaranteed a, “Free and appropriate public education.”  Children with learning, health, or mental disabilities must be offered special accommodations and services from the public school system.  Services may include an Individualized Education Program (IEP), which outlines goals and services for the school year.  Accommodations may include extra time to take tests, a note taker, support through a speech or resource teacher, adapted PE, and more.

Apraxia is a motor speech disorder.  Children with this have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words.  The child is unable to put together the correct muscle movements, and at times, a completely different word or action is used than the one the person intended.

Children, who have trouble pronouncing particular words or sounds correctly, could have articulation disorders.  The difficulty often stem from weak mouth and tongue muscles.  Problems with articulation can be frustrating to children with speech delays, since the disorder makes it difficult for other people to understand them.

Attachment and Reactive Attachment Disorder:RAD
Reactive Attachment Disorder is a rare but serious condition in which young children do not create healthy bonds with a parent or caregiver.  Normally the disorder stems from neglect, abuse or orphaned children.  When affection and nurturing are not present, caring attachments with others are not established.  This can permanently change the child’s growing brain.  Reactive Attachment Disorder is a lifelong condition, but with treatment children can develop more stable relationships with others. 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: ADHD
Attention Deficit Disorder: ADD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder can cause problems at home, school, work, and in relationships.  Children with ADHD/ADD are extremely inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive, and usually show signs before the age of seven years old.  The condition makes it difficult for children to hold back spontaneous responses within activity from movement to speech. 
Autism Spectrum Disorder: ASD
Autism is one of a group of developmental problems called autism spectrum disorders: ASD.  Symptoms vary greatly, however autism disorders cause problems with behavior, social interaction and communication.  Symptoms usually start showing before the age of three.  It is often difficult for a person with autism to talk with other people, or use words to express their thoughts.  They usually like to keep to themselves, and some can’t communicate at all without special help.  Normal sounds may bother a person with autism, so much so it hurts their ears, and being touched is often unwanted.

Bipolar Disorder: (also called Manic Depression Disorder)
Bipolar Disorder causes mood swings that range from the lows of depression to the high of mania.  Moods can swing from sad and hopeless, to euphoric and full of energy.  Moods can change rapidly throughout the day, or only a few times per year.  In some cases symptoms of depression and mania can occur at the same time.  In most cases Bipolar Disorder can be contained through medication and counseling, however, it still can be disruptive.  Some of the forms of the disorder are Bipolar I, Bipolar II, and Bipolar III.

Central Auditory Processing Disorder: CAPD or APD
An Auditory Processing Disorder means that something is adversely affecting the processing of information.  Children do not recognize subtle differences between sound and words.  An example is, “How is a cow and a crow alike?”  This may be understood as, “How is a couch and a row alike?”  This happens more often when a person with APD is in a noisy environment, or complicated information is being given.

Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy is a neurological disorder that affects body movement and muscle coordination, but it does not get worse over time.  It is caused by abnormalities in the parts of the brain that control muscle movements.  The early signs of Cerebral Palsy usually show before the age of three years old.

Down Syndrome: DS (also called Trisomy 21)
Down Syndrome is a condition in which genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops mentally and physically.  The physical traits and mental difficulties associated with Down Syndrome can widely vary from moderate to serious.  Some characteristics are facial features, and low muscle tone in early infancy.  Increased understanding and early interventions make a big difference in the lives of both children and adults with Down Syndrome.    

Dyslexia is a language based learning disability.  It's a lack in your brain’s ability to translate written images received from your eyes conveying into clear language.  This is a reading disability and is the most common learning disability in children.  People with Dyslexia may have difficulty interpreting spoken language and writing, although they have normal vision and intelligence.

Learning Disabilities: LD
There are a variety of learning problems that come under the heading of Learning Disabilities.  Children with learning disabilities are not lazy and in fact most are very intelligent.  The difference is in the way the brain receives and processes information.  These children learn differently.  A learning disability can include problems in reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening and speaking.  (See CAPD/APD, Dyslexia, NLD/NVLD, Apraxia, Articulation, Phonology)

Mental Retardation: MR
Mental Retardation is a developmental disability that appears in children under eighteen years of age.  The degree of the impairment from mental retardation varies widely from extremely impaired to borderline retardation.  It is a generalized disorder characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning, with two or more adaptive behaviors.   Children with this disorder have difficulty in motor skills, language skills, self-help, adapting to new situations, and do not develop on time, or are developing at a far slower rate than other children their age.  

Nonverbal Learning Disorder: NLD or NVLD
A Nonverbal Learning Disorder is a condition in which there is a significant discrepancy between higher verbal, lower motor, visual-spatial, and social skills.  It is often due to weak visual processing skills.  As the child gets older they tend to struggle with organization, following instructions, completing schoolwork, problem solving, peer interactions...

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: OCD
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted, repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, behaviors and obsessions, that make them feel driven to do something compulsive, or over and over.  The person will often repeat the behavior in an attempt to rid themselves of the obsessive thoughts.  This only provides temporary relief.  If the person does not perform the ritual, it then can cause anxiety.  Most people with OCD, show symptoms by the age of 30.

Phonology Processing 
Phonological processing is to be able to remember, separate, blend, and manipulate speech sound.  Phonological Processing difficulties include retrieving and using phonology codes in memory, storing information, and deficits in phonological awareness. 



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